Internet Technology

Bandwidth
The rate at which information travels through a network connection, usually measured in bits per second, kilobits (thousand bits) per second, or megabits (million bits) per second.
Blocking Software
Computer programs that filter content from the Internet and block access to some Web sites or content based on specified criteria. Parents, teachers, or caregivers can use blocking software to prevent access to certain Web sites and other information available over the Internet. (See also Client-based filter and Filtering software)
Blog
Short for Web log. A blog is a Web site to which one or more people post their personal observations on particular subjects. Postings to blogs typically are frequent and consistent. Much of the power of blogs stems from automated templates that allow users to post news, information, links, images, or other media to an existing blog.
Blogroll
Found on blogs it is a list of links to other blogs and Web sites that the blog author commonly references or is affiliated with. Blogrolls help blog authors to establish and build upon a their blogger community. In Web 1.0 terminology, a blogroll would be the equivalent of a list of hyperlinks on a personal Web page.
Blogsite
A Web site that offers blog content. Usually the site will be a portal to blog news and offer feeds from a number of different blog sources.
Browser
A program that allows a user to find, view, hear, and interact with material on the World Wide Web. Netscape Navigator and Microsoft Internet Explorer are examples of popular browsers.
Byte
A unit of measure of computer memory. A byte generally represents one character, such as A, and is made up of eight bits. (See also Bit)
Cache
A file on the hard drive in which a Web browser stores information such as addresses, text, and graphics from recently visited Web sites, making it easier and faster for the user to revisit a site.
CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read Only Memory)
A computer storage medium which can store large amounts of information; generally used to distribute software or multi-media for use on computers with CD-ROM drives. CD-ROM disks look just like music CDs, and cannot be altered by a user.
Chat
A feature offered by many online services or Web sites that allows participants to chat by typing messages which are displayed almost instantly on the screens of other participants who are using the chat room. Chatting is one of the most popular uses of the Internet. Generally the participants remain anonymous, using nicknames or pseudonyms to identify themselves online.
Chat Room
The name given to a place or page in a Web site or online service where people can \"chat\" with each other by typing messages which are displayed almost instantly on the screens of others who are in the \"chat room.\" Chat rooms are also called \"online forums.\"
Cookie
A piece of information sent by a Web server to a user(s) browser. (A Web server is the computer that a Web site, and responds to requests from a user(s) browser.) Cookies may include information such as login or registration identification, user preferences, online shopping cart information, etc. The browser saves the information, and sends it back to the Web server whenever the browser returns to the Web site. The Web server may use the cookie to customize the display it sends to the user, or it may keep track of the different pages within the site that the user accesses. Browsers may be configured to alert the user when a cookie is being sent, or to refuse to accept cookies. Some sites, however, cannot be accessed unless the browser accepts cookies. (See also Personally Identifiable Information)
Cyber Criminals
Cyber World
Cyberspace
1. Cyberspace refers to the (place) you go when you use your computer and modem to communicate with others. When you are online, you are in cyberspace. With many users of the Internet, it refers to the area between the ears. 2. The place where computer networking hardware, network software, and people using them converge. Defined by John Perry Barlow as the place where a telephone call happens. 3. The prefix (cyber) is often combined with other words, as in (cyberpunk). 4. What is between the ears of cyberpunks. Cyberspace Describes the world of connected computers and the society that gathers around them. Commonly known as the INTERNET.
del.icio.us
A social bookmarking Web site that serves as a bookmarks manager for users, similar to a collection of favorite links. You can add bookmarks to your del.icio.us list, categorize the bookmarks, tag them and also share them with others. On some blogs the words del.icio.us) may appear below a blog post as a hyperlink that readers can click to submit the post to their del.icio.us bookmarks.
Digg
A community-based Web site where users submit content and rate that content by (Digging) what they see and like best. A submission that earns a larger number of Diggs, and therefore is more popular with users, is moved the Digg homepage for the category of content it belongs in. The Digg Web site was founded by Kevin Rose and launched in November 2004.
Digg This
On many blogs including Typepad, Blogger, Live Journal, Moveable Type, and WordPress, the words (Digg This) may appear below a blog post as a hyperlink which readers can click to submit the post to the Digg Web site.
Digital
Describes any system based on discontinuous data or events. Computers are digital machines because at their most basic level they can distinguish between just two values, 0 and 1, or off and on. There is no simple way to represent all the values in between, such as 0.25. All data that a computer processes must be encoded digitally, as a series of zeroes and ones. The opposite of digital is analog. A typical analog device is a clock in which the hands move continuously around the face. Such a clock is capable of indicating every possible time of day. In contrast, a digital clock is capable of representing only a finite number of times (every tenth of a second, for example). In general, humans experience the world analogically. Vision, for example, is an analog experience because we perceive infinitely smooth gradations of shapes and colors. Most analog events, however, can be simulated digitally. Photographs in newspapers, for instance, consist of an array of dots that are either black or white. From afar, the viewer does not see the dots (the digital form), but only lines and shading, which appear to be continuous. Although digital representations are approximations of analog events, they are useful because they are relatively easy to store and manipulate electronically. The trick is in converting from analog to digital, and back again. This is the principle behind compact discs (CDs). The music itself exists in an analog form, as waves in the air, but these sounds are then translated into a digital form that is encoded onto the disk. When you play a compact disc, the CD player reads the digital data, translates it back into its original analog form, and sends it to the amplifier and eventually the speakers. Internally, computers are digital because they consist of discrete units called bits that are either on or off. But by combining many bits in complex ways, computers simulate analog events. In one sense, this is what computer science is all about.
Domain Name
Domain names are the alphabetic names used to refer to computers on the Internet. A Web site address, including a suffix such as .com, .org, .gov, or .edu. The suffix indicates what type of organization is hosting the site. * com - Originally stood for (commercial), to indicate a site that could be used for private, commercial purposes, but now the best well known top level domain, and used for a wide variety of sites * net - Originally intended for site related to the Internet itself, but now used for a wide variety of sites * edu - Use for educational institutions like universities * org - Originally intended for non-commercial (organizations), but organizations now used for a wide variety of sites * gov - Used for US Government sites * mil - Used for US Military sites * int - Used by (International) sites, usually NATO sites
e-Zine
Short for electronic magazine, the name for a web site that is modeled after a print magazine. Some e-zines are simply electronic versions of existing print magazines, whereas others exist only in their digital format. Most e-zines are advertiser-supported but a few charge a subscription.
Facebook
The name of a social networking site (SNS) that connects people with friends and others who work, study and live around them. People use Facebook to keep in touch with friends, post photos, share links and exchange other information. Facebook users can see only the profiles of confirmed friends and the people in their networks.
Facebook Connect
A type of data portability technology that enables users of the social networking site (SNS) Facebook to connect their Facebook account with any partner Web site using a trusted authentication method. Using Facebook Connect, members will be able to use their Facebook identity across the Web, including profile photos, name, friends, groups, events, and more. Facebook Connect also uses what the company calls (dynamic security) which ensures the privacy setting you use will also be used on the third-party Web sites.
Facebook Group
Facebook Groups are pages that you create within the Facebook social networking site that are based around a real-life interest or group or to declare an affiliation or association with people and things. With a Facebook Group, you are creating a community of people and friends to promote, share and discuss relevant topics.
Facebook Mini-Feed
On the Facebook social networking site, a Mini-Feed is found in the top-right portion of your user profile. This Mini-Feed will provide details on new friends, new applications you have installed, messages sent by applications, and basically can report on any changes from an application that can be seen as a news event. You can mark some of these items as spam, and you can also control, to some extent, how much or how little detail is provided in your Mini-Feed through the application and privacy settings.
Facebook Wall
On the Facebook, social networking site a wall is a section in your profile where others can write messages to you or leave you gifts, which are icon-like small images. The wall is a public writing space so others who view your profile can see what has been written on your wall. Once you have received a wall message, you can respond directly back to the friend who left it using the (wall-to-wall) mode. There are variations of the wall available to Facebook users by installing Facebook applications, like (Super Wall). These types of applications will offer features and options not found in the standard Facebook wall.
FireFox
Firefox is a free, open source Web browser for Windows, Linux and Mac OS X. It is based on the Mozilla code base and offers customization options and features such as its capability to block pop-up windows, tabbed browsing, privacy and security measures, smart searching, and RSS live bookmarks.
Forum
An online discussion group. Online services and bulletin board services (BBS(s) provide a variety of forums, in which participants with common interests can exchange open messages. Forums are sometimes called newsgroups (in the Internet world) or conferences.
Home Page
The main page of a Web site. Typically, the home page serves as an index or table of contents to other documents stored at the site.
Honeypot
An Internet-attached server that acts as a decoy, luring in potential hackers in order to study their activities and monitor how they are able to break into a system. Honeypots are designed to mimic systems that an intruder would like to break into but limit the intruder from having access to an entire network. If a honeypot is successful, the intruder will have no idea that s/he is being tricked and monitored. Most honeypots are installed inside firewalls so that they can better be controlled, though it is possible to install them outside of firewalls. A firewall in a honeypot works in the opposite way that a normal firewall works: instead of restricting what comes into a system from the Internet, the honeypot firewall allows all traffic to come in from the Internet and restricts what the system sends back out.
Hyperlink
An element in an electronic document that links to another place in the same document or to an entirely different document. Typically, you click on the hyperlink to follow the link. Hyperlinks are the most essential ingredient of all hypertext systems, including the World Wide Web.
Hypertext
A special type of database system, invented by Ted Nelson in the 1960s, in which objects (text, pictures, music, programs, and so on) can be creatively linked to each other. When you select an object, you can see all the other objects that are linked to it. You can move from one object to another even though they might have very different forms. For example, while reading a document about Mozart, you might click on the phrase Violin Concerto in A Major, which could display the written score or perhaps even invoke a recording of the concerto. Clicking on the name Mozart might cause various illustrations of Mozart to appear on the screen. The icons that you select to view associated objects are called Hypertext links or buttons.
Internet Address
An Internet address uniquely identifies a node on the Internet. Internet address may also refer to the name or IP of a Web site (URL). The term Internet address can also represent someone(s) e-mail address.
IT
Short for Information Technology, and pronounced as separate letters, the broad subject concerned with all aspects of managing and processing information, especially within a large organization or company. Because computers are central to information management, computer departments within companies and universities are often called IT departments. Some companies refer to this department as IS (Information Services) or MIS (Management Information Services).
Microblog
A type of blog that lets users publish short text updates. Bloggers can usually use a number of service for the updates including instant messaging, e-mail, or Twitter. The posts are called microposts, while the act of using these services to update your blog is called microblogging. Social networking sites, like Facebook, also use a microblogging feature in profiles. On Facebook this is called (Status Updates).
MySpace
The name of a social networking site (SNS) that consists of a network of member(s) profiles, Web logs, photos, e-mail, forums, group, and more. MySpace was founded in August 2003 by the Internet company eUniverse. In 2006 News Corp. bought Intermix Media, parent company of MySpace for $580 million.
Network of Botnets
Online
Turned on and connected. For example, printers are online when they are ready to receive data from the computer. You can also turn a printer offline. While the printer is offline, you can perform certain tasks such as advancing the paper, but you cannot send data to it. Most printers have an online button you can press to turn the machine on- or offline. Users are considered online when they are connected to a computer service through a modem. That is, they are actually on the line.
PAN (Personal Area Network)
A personal area network (PAN) is the interconnection of information technology devices within the range of an individual person, typically within a range of 10 meters. For example, a person traveling with a laptop, a personal digital assistant (PDA), and a portable printer could interconnect them without having to plug anything in, using some form of wireless technology. Typically, this kind of personal area network could also be interconnected without wires to the Internet or other networks. In another usage, a personal area network (PAN) is a technology that could enable wearable computer devices to communicate with other nearby computers and exchange digital information using the electrical conductivity of the human body as a data network. For example, two people each wearing business card-size transmitters and receivers conceivably could exchange information by shaking hands. The transference of data through intra-body contact, such as handshakes, is known as linkup. The human body(s) natural salinity makes it a good conductor of electricity. An electric field passes tiny currents, known as Pico amps, through the body when the two people shake hands. The handshake completes an electric circuit and each person(s) data, such as e-mail addresses and phone numbers, are transferred to the other person(s) laptop computer or a similar device. A person(s) clothing also could act as a mechanism for transferring this data.
Peer-to-Peer
Any network in which all the computers are of equal capacities and capabilities, as opposed to a client-server network, in which one machine is intended to serve the needs of others. File-sharing networks are generally constructed with a peer-to-peer (also known as P2P) architecture.
Public Forums
Refers to digital entities such as bulletin boards, public directories, or commercial CD-ROM directories, where personal user data may be distributed by a site or a service provider.
Remote Desktop
Remote desktop is a program or an operating system feature that allows the user to connect to a computer in another location, see that computer(s) desktop and interact with it as if it were local.
Retweet
Abbreviated as RT, Retweet is used on the Twitter Web site (a free social messaging tool), to show you are tweeting content that has been posted by another user. The format is RT @username where username is the twitter name of the person you are retweeting.
RSS
RSS is the acronym used to describe the de facto standard for the syndication of Web content. RSS is an XML-based format and while it can be used in different ways for content distribution, its most widespread usage is in distributing news headlines on the Web. A Web site that wants to allow other sites to publish some of its content creates an RSS document and registers the document with an RSS publisher. A user that can read RSS-distributed content can use the content on a different site. Syndicated content can include data such as news feeds, events listings, news stories, headlines, project updates, excerpts from discussion forums or even corporate information. Because there are different versions of RSS, the term RSS is most frequently used as a name to mean the syndication of Web content, rather than as an acronym for its founding technology. When using the name RSS the speaker may be referring to any of the following versions of Web content syndication: * RDF Site Summary (RSS 0.9, RSS 1.0) * Rich Site Summary (RSS 0.91, RSS 1.0) * Really Simple Syndication (RSS 2.0) When using the term RSS, most will use it in reference to Rich Site Summary or the previous version called RDF Site Summary. When referring to Really Simple Syndication, it will usually be called RSS 2.0, not RSS. There are several versions of RSS available, with the most commonly implemented version being RSS 0.91. The most current version, however, is RSS 2.0 and it is backward-compatible with RSS 0.91. RSS was originally developed by Netscape. The RSS 2.0 specification was authored by Dave Winer.
Search Engine
A tool that enables users to locate information on the World Wide Web. Search engines use keywords entered by users to find Web sites which contain the information sought. Some search engines are specifically designed to find Web sites intended for children.
Secure Socket Layer (SSL)
A secure socket layer is a protocol used to transmit sensitive data securely via the Internet. SSL uses a two key encryption system to secure data, a public key and a private key known only by the recipient of the message. Many Web sites use SSL when collecting information for transactions, generally these URLs will begin with https: instead of http:.
Social Media
A term used to describe a variety of Web-based platforms, applications and technologies that enable people to socially interact with one another online. Some examples of social media sites and applications include Facebook, YouTube, Del.icio.us, Twitter, Digg, blogs and other sites that have content based on user participation and user-generated content (UGC).
Social Networking Site
Abbreviated as SNS a social networking site is the phrase used to describe any Web site that enables users to create public profiles within that Web site and form relationships with other users of the same Web site who access their profile. Social networking sites can be used to describe community-based Web sites, online discussions forums, chatrooms and other social spaces online.
Tag Cloud
A tag cloud is a stylized way of visually representing occurrences of words used to described tags. The most popular topics are normally highlighted in a larger, bolder font. Visitors to a blog or site using a tag cloud, are able to easily see the most popular tags within the page — making it easy to discern the topics covered in one quick look. Also called a weighted list.
Tagging
Commonly used in blogs, site authors attach keyword descriptions (called tags) to identify images or text within their site as a categories or topic. Web pages and blogs with identical tags can then be linked together allowing users to search for similar or related content. If the tags are made public, online pages that act as a Web-based bookmark service are able to index them. tags can be created using words, acronyms or numbers. Tags are also called tagging, blog tagging, folksonomies (short for folks and taxonomy), or social bookmarking. The act of placing RFID labels bar codes on items is called tagging.
Technology
(1) (n.) (a) The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives. (b) The scientific method and material used to achieve a commercial or industrial objective. (2) Electronic or digital products and systems considered as a group. (3) Anthropology. The body of knowledge available to a society that is of use in fashioning implements, practicing manual arts and skills, and extracting or collecting materials.
Technorati
An Internet search engine that indexes and searches blogs. Technorati tracks blogs and other forms of citizen media, including video blogs (vlogs), podcasts and amateur movies and videos in real-time. All this activity is monitored and indexed within minutes of posting.
Tool Bar
In the graphical user interface ( GUI ) for a computer, a toolbar is a horizontal row or vertical column of selectable image (button(s)) that give the user a constantly visible reminder of and an easy way to select certain desktop or other application functions, such as saving or printing a document or moving pages forwards or backwards within a Web browser.
Tweet
A tweet is a post on Twitter. The act of writing a tweet is called tweeting or twittering. Tweets can be up to 140 characters long, including spaces, and can include URLs and hashtags.
Twitter
A free social messaging tool that lets people stay connected through brief text message updates up to 140 characters in length. Twitter is based on you answering the question (What are you doing)? You then post thoughts, observations, and goings-on during the day. Your update is posted on your Twitter profile page through SMS text messaging, the Twitter Web site, instant messaging, RSS, e-mail, or through other social applications and sites, such as Facebook.
URL - (Uniform Resource Locator)
The World Wide Web address of a site on the Internet. The URL for the Internal Revenue Service, for example, is http://www.irs.gov. (See also (Domain name))
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A network that uses public wires, such as the Internet, to connect to nodes and transport data. A VPN uses encryption and other security mechanisms to ensure that there is no unauthorized access to the network and no possibility of interception of data.
Webinar
Also written as “webinar.” Short for Web-based seminar, a presentation, lecture, workshop or seminar that is transmitted over the Web. A key feature of a Webinar is its interactive elements -- the ability to give, receive and discuss information. Contrast with Webcast, in which the data transmission is one way and does not allow interaction between the presenter and the audience.
WPAN (Wireless Personal Area Network)
In another usage, a personal area network (PAN) is a technology that could enable wearable computer devices to communicate with other nearby computers and exchange digital information using the electrical conductivity of the human body as a data network. For example, two people each wearing business card-size transmitters and receivers conceivably could exchange information by shaking hands. The transference of data through intra-body contact, such as handshakes, is known as linkup. The human body(s) natural salinity makes it a good conductor of electricity. An electric field passes tiny currents, known as Pico amps, through the body when the two people shake hands. The handshake completes an electric circuit and each person(s) data, such as e-mail addresses and phone numbers, are transferred to the other person(s) laptop computer or a similar device. A person(s) clothing also could act as a mechanism for transferring this data.
YouTube
A popular free video-sharing Web site that lets registered users upload and share video clipsonline at the YouTube.com Web site. To view the videos you are not required to register. Launched in 2005 by former PayPal employees, the video-sharing site was acquired by Google Inc. in October 2006 for US $1.65 billion in Google stock. YouTube is currently based in San Bruno, CA and is a subsidiary of Google, Inc.
Zero-Day Exploit
Called either Day Zero or Zero-Day, it is an exploit that takes advantage of a security vulnerability on the same day that the vulnerability becomes publicly or generally known. Zero-Day exploits are usually posted by well-known hacker groups. Software companies may issue a security bulletin or advisory when the exploit becomes known, but companies may not be able to offer a patch to fix the vulnerability for some time after.

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